Early Childhood Care and Education in Jordan
For the purpose of this brief, ECCE includes childcare and education services provided to children aged zero to six, including:
1. Pre/post-natal care and nurseries for ages 0-4
2. Kindergarten 1 (KG1) for ages 4-5 and
3. Kindergarten 2 (KG2) for ages 5-6.
Importance of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
- Rapid brain development occurs during the first 5 years of life,[i] where 85% of intellect, skills and personality are cultivated.[ii]
In Jordan, every $1 invested in ECCE is estimated to yield a minimum of $9 in private and social benefits.[iii]
Access to ECCE
|In July 2017, the Ministry of Education and UNICEF launched an eight-year executive plan to universalise KG2 access across Jordan.|
- 38% of children were enrolled in KG1&2 for the academic year 2014-2015. [iv]
- A 2015 survey of Jordanian mothers found only 2% of children aged 3-48 months were enrolled in nurseries.[v]
- Jordan is reliant on the private sector for ECCE provision, with 82% of KG1&2 class-units established in the private sector.[vi] However, other forms of provision are growing: the Ministry of Education (MoE) is expanding public KG2 services, many children of teachers are enrolled in nurseries housed in MoE schools, and significant numbers of children are served by work-based providers and community-based organizations (CBOs).[vii]
- A 2012 study found that advantaged children had a 44% chance of accessing ECCE, while the most disadvantaged had a 5% chance.[viii]
- Around 25% of private nursery caregivers and 5% of MoE-based caregivers held Bachelor’s degrees or higher in 2015 (see Figure 1).[ix]
*Note: Nursery services in MoE-based schools are provided to children of teachers working at the school.
Source: QRF National ECD Survey 2015
- 42% of private and 27% of MoE-based nursery caregivers reported choosing the profession due to a desire for the field. 58% of private and 42% of MoE school-based caregivers reported that Tawjihi grade was one of their main reasons for pursuing community college or undergraduate education specialities, since these programs require relatively low Tawjihi scores.[x]
90% of MoE-based nursery caregivers reported not receiving any pre-service training.[xi]
- 90% of private and 95% of MoE-based nursery caregivers reported not receiving any professional development opportunities in the previous two years.[xii]
- The Education Reform for Knowledge Economy project (ERfKE) included several in-service training programs for ECCE teachers and caregivers, including training for utilizing curriculum, technology, increasing parental awareness and increasing students’ skills through play.
- 32% of private, 4% of MoE school-based, 18% of work-based and 16% of CBO nursery directors and administrators reported using established curricula in their settings.[xiii]
The Education Reform for Knowledge Economy project (ERfKE) included several in-service training programs for ECCE teachers and caregivers, including training for utilizing curriculum, technology, increasing parental awareness and increasing students’ skills through play
- A national interactive curriculum is available for KG2 classrooms, developed under the ERfKE project in 2003. National curriculum for KG1 or nursery classrooms has not yet been developed. Some providers use internationally-developed curricula for these years instead.
Source: QRF National ECD Survey 2015
[i] Australian Early Childhood Mental Health Initiative. (2014). Early childhood neurodevelopment. https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/sites/default/files/public/KidsMatter-Early-Childhood-neurodevelopment-web.pdf.
[ii] Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. (2007). Brain Development and Early Learning. Quality Matters: A Policy Brief Series, 1. https://larrycuban.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/brain_dev_and_early_learning.pdf.
[iii] Fink, G, McCoy, D. Hatamleh, H.,Pylvainen, H., Chen, H. & Al-Assaf, G. (2017). Economic Implications of Investing in Early Childhood Care and Education in Jordan. Queen Rania Foundation. http://qrf.org/sites/default/files/Economic%20Implications%20of%20ECCE%20in%20Jordan.pdf
[iv] Ministry of Education (2014). Statistical Report 2014-2015 (التقرير االحصائي للعام الدراسي). http://moe.gov.jo/Files/(2-2-2017)(8-43-24%20AM).pdf.
[v] QRF National ECD Survey 2015 - unpublished raw data.
[vi] Ministry of Education (2014). Statistical Report 2014-2015 (التقرير االحصائي للعام الدراسي). http://moe.gov.jo/Files/(2-2-2017)(8-43-24%20AM).pdf. 76% of KG2 class-units and 100% of KG1 class-units were provided in the private sector.
[vii] Nursery services are available in larger MoE schools, but only for the children of teachers working at the school, with salaries paid by those teachers. MoE-based KG2 services are available for the general public, but not universally as of 2017.
[viii]El-Kogali, S., & Krafft, C. (2015). Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation: Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank Group. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/21287/9781464803239.pdf;sequence=1.
[ix] QRF. (2015).
[x] QRF. (2015).
[xi] QRF. (2015).
[xii] QRF. (2015).
[xiii] QRF. (2015).
[xiv] This included MoE-based nurseries (50%), private nurseries (39%), work-based nurseries (4%) and CBO nurseries (7%).
[xv] QRF. (2015).